First we need to define the food that vegan should avoid:
Poultry and cattle meat, fish and sea food, milk and any food made of milk, eggs, food made from bee and bee’s products, and all of other food have animal origin.
Bellow are the Vegan food which are popular in the world: (source: https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/vegan-diet-guide#section4)
Health-conscious vegans substitute animal products with plant-based replacements, such as:
Tofu, tempeh and seitan: These provide a versatile protein-rich alternative to meat, fish, poultry and eggs in many recipes.
Legumes: Foods such as beans, lentils and peas are excellent sources of many nutrients and beneficial plant compounds. Sprouting, fermenting and proper cooking can increase nutrient absorption (34).
Nuts and nut butters: Especially unblanched and unroasted varieties, which are good sources of iron, fiber, magnesium, zinc, selenium and vitamin E (35).
Seeds: Especially hemp, chia and flaxseeds, which contain a good amount of protein and beneficial omega-3 fatty acids (36, 37, 38).
Calcium-fortified plant milks and yogurts: These help vegans achieve their recommended dietary calcium intakes. Opt for varieties also fortified with vitamins B12 and D whenever possible.
Algae: Spirulina and chlorella are good sources of complete protein. Other varieties are great sources of iodine.
Nutritional yeast: This is an easy way to increase the protein content of vegan dishes and add an interesting cheesy flavor. Pick vitamin B12-fortified varieties whenever possible.
Whole grains, cereals and pseudocereals: These are a great source of complex carbs, fiber, iron, B-vitamins and several minerals. Spelt, teff, amaranth and quinoa are especially high-protein options (39, 40, 41, 42).
Sprouted and fermented plant foods: Ezekiel bread, tempeh, miso, natto, sauerkraut, pickles, kimchi and kombucha often contain probiotics and vitamin K2. Sprouting and fermenting can also help improve mineral absorption (34, 43).
Fruits and vegetables: Both are great foods to increase your nutrient intake. Leafy greens such as bok choy, spinach, kale, watercress and mustard greens are particularly high in iron and calcium.
Risks and How to Minimize Them
Favoring a well-planned diet that limits processed foods and replaces them with nutrient-rich ones instead is important for everyone, not only vegans.
That said, those following poorly planned vegan diets are particularly at risk of certain nutrient deficiencies.
In fact, studies show that vegans are at a higher risk of having inadequate blood levels of vitamin B12, vitamin D, long-chain omega-3s, iodine, iron, calcium and zinc (44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56).
Not getting enough of these nutrients is worrisome for everyone, but it may pose a particular risk to those with increased requirements, such as children or women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
Your genetic makeup and the composition of your gut bacteria may also influence your ability to derive the nutrients you need from a vegan diet.
One way to minimize the likelihood of deficiency is to limit the amount of processed vegan foods you consume and opt for nutrient-rich plant foods instead.
Fortified foods, especially those enriched with calcium, vitamin D and vitamin B12, should also make a daily appearance on your plate.
Furthermore, vegans wanting to enhance their absorption of iron and zinc should try fermenting, sprouting and cooking foods (34).
Also, the use of iron cast pots and pans for cooking, avoiding tea or coffee with meals and combining iron-rich foods with a source of vitamin C can further boost iron absorption (57).
Moreover, the addition of seaweed or iodized salt to the diet can help vegans reach their recommended daily intake of iodine (58).
Lastly, omega-3 containing foods, especially those high in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), can help the body produce longer-chain omega-3s such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Foods high in ALA include chia, hemp, flaxseeds, walnuts and soybeans. However, there’s debate regarding whether this conversion is efficient enough to meet daily needs (59, 60).
Therefore, a daily intake of 200–300 mg of EPA and DHA from an algae oil supplement may be a safer way to prevent low levels (61).
Supplements to Consider
Some vegans may find it difficult to eat enough of the nutrient-rich or fortified foods above to meet their daily requirements.
In this case, the following supplements can be particularly beneficial:
Vitamin B12: Vitamin B12 in cyanocobalamin form is the most studied and seems to work well for most people (62).
Vitamin D: Opt for D2 or vegan D3 forms such as those manufactured by Nordic Naturals or Viridian.
EPA and DHA: Sourced from algae oil.
Iron: Should only be supplemented in the case of a documented deficiency. Ingesting too much iron from supplements can cause health complications and prevent the absorption of other nutrients (63).
Iodine: Take a supplement or add 1/2 teaspoon of iodized salt to your diet daily.
Calcium: Calcium is best absorbed when taken in doses of 500 mg or less at a time. Taking calcium at the same time as iron or zinc supplements may reduce their absorption (57, 64).
Zinc: Taken in zinc gluconate or zinc citrate forms. Not to be taken at the same time as calcium supplements (64).
Many people do not know Vegan should avoid what kind of food, how can apply the diet, what method should choose, etc…